Keynote Session

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Date Tuesday 6
Wednesday 7
Thursday 8
Friday 9
Auditorium, 3F
Morning No
K002 Keynote Session 2

· Laurent Gaveau
(Google Cultural Institute)

· Hyunmi Yang
(Chief Strategy Officer, GSMA)
K003 Keynote Session 3

· Jeong-Dong Lee
(Professor, Seoul National University)

· Baeyong Lee
(Office to the President, The Academy of Korean Studies)
K004 Keynote Session 4

· Li Minghua
(Director General,
State Archives Administration and
the Central Archives
of China)

· Eric Ketelaar
(Professor Emeritus, University of Amsterdam)
Afternoon Opening Ceremony [14:00-15:30]

K001 Keynote Session 1

· John Hocking
(Assistant Secretary General, UN)
L001 Plenary Session 1

· Byungju Shin
KonKuk University)

· Yoonyoung Chan
(Vice President,
NAVER Corp.)

L002 Plenary Session 2

· Anne Gilliland-Swetland
(Professor, University
of California,
Los Angeles)

· Barbara Reed
(Director, Recordkeeping Innovation Pty Ltd)

· Yoonkyoung Kang
(Director, Samsung Electronics)
      Closing Ceremony
  • Tuesday 6 September

    K001 Keynote Session 1 [15:30-16:15]

    John Hocking - Assistant Secretary General, United Nations (UN)

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    John Hocking of Australia is a senior official of the United Nations. He has served as an Assistant Secretary-General and Registrar of both the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) since 2009, and the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT) since 2012.

      As part of his many responsibilities, Mr. Hocking oversees the preservation and accessibility of the archives of the United Nations trials arising from the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and the atrocities which engulfed the Balkans in the 1990s. Recognizing the “mission-critical” role of archivists in any institution, he has ensured their full integration within the wide spectrum of ICTY and MICT operations. He recounted the journey of United Nations Tribunals archivists “from the backroom to the boardroom”, inspiring other archivists around the world at the 2015 ICA annual conference. In 2015, Mr. Hocking signed the Universal Declaration on Archives on behalf of the Mechanism, the first United Nations institution to do so. He has managed the construction of the first United Nations purpose-built archives building in Tanzania for the MICT.

      Prior to joining the United Nations, Mr. Hocking held legal and policy adviser positions domestically and internationally, including with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris, and the Australian Government's national multicultural television and radio broadcaster.

      Mr. Hocking is admitted as a barrister at Lincoln’s Inn in London, United Kingdom, and as an advocate at the Supreme Courts of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia. He holds a Masters of Law from the London School of Economics.

    Title: To be updated

  • Wednesday 7 September

    K002 Keynote Session 2 [09:00-09:40]

    Laurent Gaveau - Google Cultural Institute

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    Laurent Gaveau took the reins of the Lab of the Google Cultural Institute in december 2013. Before joining Google, Laurent Gaveau 
    was Deputy Director of Communications at the Château de Versailles since 2008, more specifically in charge of Marketing, Digital and Partnerships. A graduate of Sciences Po Paris and a postgraduate in musicology at the Sorbonne, he previously worked at the Opéra de Paris, the Ministry of Culture and Universal Music France, first as head of jazz and classical projects, then as head of online marketing for all music labels.
    Title: Tech and Culture - change and preservation >
    Laurent Gaveau is Head of the Lab at the Google Cultural Institute, in Paris. He and his team work on making art and culture accessible and engaging for everyone. The Cultural Institute have partnered with over 1200 museums, archives and other institutions from more than 70 countries to bring our shared heritage onto the web and connect them with people through new technologies. At the Lab, a team if engineers, creative coders and artists have been experimenting with virtual reality, or with combining art and machine learning algorithms to create new ways to explore culture.
  • Hyunmi Yang - Chief Strategy Officer, GSMA

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    As Chief Strategy Officer for the GSMA, Dr. Hyunmi Yang is responsible for working with the GSMA’s operator members in identifying opportunities that will advance the development of the mobile communications industry. Before joining the GSMA in 2012, Hyunmi served most recently as Executive Vice President and Chief Customer Officer for KT. When joining KT as an Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer of the Mobile Business Group in 2009, Hyunmi was noted for being the first female executive in the history of telecommunications in Korea. Later responsible for both the mobile and fixed line businesses as a Chief Customer Officer, she had overall ownership of the master customer portfolio, development of a group customer loyalty programme and overall customer strategies. With her unique blend of careers in the fields of telecom and finance, Hyunmi led the way and set the pace with regards to telecom–banking convergence services such as smart wallet and mobile money transfer services, as well as NFC. Prior to KT, she was Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer for Shinhan Bank in Korea, where she led marketing strategies and product development. Hyunmi has also held senior management roles at American Express in New York, where she applied data-driven insights to marketing strategies and loyalty programmes. Hyunmi holds a Ph.D. in applied mathematics and statistics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and M.S. and B.S. degrees in mathematics from Seoul National University in Seoul.
    Title: Artificial Intelligence, big data and
    automation in a mobile-powered future >
    The mobile industry has undergone an incredible transformation since the introduction of the mobile internet and, more specifically, iOS and Android. More than 4.7bn unique individuals now own a mobile phone, with over 3.2bn using the mobile internet.

      With this growth in usage comes exponential growth in the amount of data created: about people, the services they use, their behaviours and needs, and context. This is both a blessing to the tech industry and a challenge for the years to come.

      The opportunity exploit user data through artificially intelligent products and services, such virtual and mixed reality in advanced markets, is huge. The promise is a future where services are ever more personal and relevant, seamless and highly predictive.

      In emerging markets even collection of basic user data can be life changing: for example, registering births via SMS brings more people into the formal economy.

      Whether a user is in South Korea, or South Sudan, this nirvana presents challenges to the digital economy: technical, ethical, regulatory and commercial.

      Technically, the ability to store, categorise, extract and interpret huge volumes of data has undergone a revolution over the past decade. But there is more to be done given that only a small fraction of data collected is ever exploited – and we must plan for a future in which vastly more data is created.

      Ethically, as a society, we must answer the question: how much data exploitation is enough? The answer will shape how governments respond, either through enabling new data-driven technologies, or regulating them.

      Finally, how will cutting-edge technologies such as AI, VR and AR be commercialized, beyond the obvious mass-market implementations such as Amazon’s Echo and Facebook’s Oculus Rift?

      The mobile industry is at the forefront of enabling this transformation to the ‘digital economy’ – the 4th industrial revolution that is likely to be just as transformative as the agricultural, industrial and internet revolutions.
  • L001 Plenary Session 1 [14:15-14:55]

    Byungju Shin - Professor, KonKuk University

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    Professor Shin obtained his Bachelor’s degree in Korean History, and his Master’s degree and Ph.D. from Seoul National University. Following his experience as a Researcher at Seoul National University’s Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies, he is currently working as a Professor for KonKuk University’s College of Liberal Arts, Department of History.

      He has previously served as the Director for General Affairs at the Choson Dynasty History Association, as an advisory council member for the Forum for the Royal Manuscripts of Kyujanggak, and as an expert advisor for the construction of the National Museum of Korean Contemporary History. Currently, he is hosting a TV program called “The Day, History Journal” on KBS1 TV, and a radio program called “Global Korean History, the World that Day.” He has also authored several books, including “How to Meet with Joseon,” “A Critical Review of Joseon” and “the Treasures of Joseon found in Kyujanggak.”
    Title: Joseon Dynasty and its Archival Culture >
    The traditional dynasty of the Republic of Korea, the Joseon Dynasty, ruled for over 500 years. There are several factors that contributed to the longevity of the ruling, the most principal being their strong establishment of an archival culture. Out of the 13 Memory of the World Registers, eight were produced during the Joseon Dynasty, including: “The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty,” “Uigwe: The Royan Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty,” “Seungjeongwon Ilgi: the Diaries of the Royan Secretariat,” and “Ilseongnok (The Records of Daily Reflections).” The records of the Joseon Dynasty maintained transparency and openness, allowing for an expectation of respectable politics, starting from the King himself. In records, the archiving system is just as important as the records themselves. The royal family of the Joseon Dynasty built government storage units in multiple locations. They also exerted a large amount of effort in the preservation process, one example being Po-sweh, a method by which books were dried by sunlight and wind. These efforts prevented any gaps within the records, and allowed them to be continuously passed down.
  • Youngchan Yoon - Vice President, NAVER Corp.

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    Current Vice President of Naver Corporation
    Executive Director of Naver Corporation Management Support Team
    Director of NHN (Currently Naver Corporation) Media Center
    Head of NHN (Currently Naver Corporation) Media Service
    Joined NHN Corporation (Currently Naver Corporation)
    Senior Journalist of Dong A Daily’s Ministry of Culture
    Head of Dong A Daily’s Union Committee
    Journalist at Dong A Daily in the Social and Political Affairs Department and eventually entitled as the Senior Journalist of Political Affairs

    Operating Chair of Korea Internet Corporations Association
    Member of Korea Internet Self-Governance Organization’s Operating Committee
    Director of Korea 3D Printing Association
    Member of the Republic of Korea National Election Commission Advisory Board
    Member of the Internet Search Services Policy Advisory Committee
    Nonexecutive Director of YTN PLUS
    Member of the Cultural Corps of Korean Buddhism Committee Member
    Member of the Cultural Corps of Korean Buddhism Committee
    Member of the Yonhap News Agency User Committee
    Title: Naver rewrites the history of Korean records and archives
    in the digital world >
    Records and archives have been produced since the beginning of the mankind and evolved together with the civilization.

      In the modern society, the every aspect of our life is being recorded and archived on the various digital platforms, ranging from emails, mobile messages, blogs and online communities to sns services.

      Naver Corporation, the leading search company in South Korea, has recognized and valued the importance of these digitized records since its launch of Naver, the search portal.

      In particular, the company put a great emphasis on creating and growing the Korean-based documents and contents. Over the time it has rolled out the range of platforms, including Naver Cafe, Blog, Knowledge search and space for images and videos, which users have embraced dearly.

      In addition, the company has continued its efforts to expand the pool of information by digitizing newspapers, dictionaries and professional information, which made Naver the most favored search service in Korea.

      The recent open of its data center, Gak, represents another aspect of these efforts, which is to preserve a variety of digitized records in a safe and scientific way.

      Naver will continue its efforts to contain the ideas and looks of the users and become the valuable resource in creating a better future through these records.
  • Thursday 8 September

    K003 Keynote Session 3 [09:00-09:40]

    Jeong-Dong Lee - Professor, Seoul National University

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    Professor Jeong-Dong Lee received his Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Ph.D. degrees in Engineering at Seoul National University. He is a professor of the Interdisciplinary Graduate Program on Technology Management, Economics and Policy (TEMEP) and the Department of Industrial Engineering in the College of Engineering at Seoul National University, Korea. His main research topics include industry and firm dynamics, productivity and efficiency analysis, evolutionary economics, and innovation policy. He published five books and edited two including “Productivity, Efficiency and Economic Growth in the Asia-Pacific Region” by Springer Verlag in 2008. Professor Lee also published more than 60 articles in peer-reviewed academic journals, such as Economic Modelling, Industrial and Corporate Change, Energy & Environment, Energy Economics, Scientometrics, Journal of Productivity Analysis, Small Business Economics, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, International Journal of Industrial Organization, Technovation, Mathematical and Computer Modeling, and Asian Journal of Technology Innovation. He served as the Principal Coordinator for the Asia-Pacific Productivity Conference (APPC) in 2006 and as the President for the Korean Productivity Association (KPA) in 2011, and is President-elect for the Korean Corporation Management Association (KOCOMA) for 2017. He was the principal investigator of UNDP (United Nations Development Program) project for the innovation policy case studies for developing countries from 2011-2013. Professor Lee now actively consults for the government and private sector.
    Title: Innovation through accumulated
    experiences of creative trial-and-error >
    Developing countries usually start their development process by adopting developed country partners’ conceptual designs for their production of goods and services. With this adoption strategy, they can minimize the cost and risk associated with establishing conceptual designs. However, in order to become innovation-driven economies, developing countries have to try to create novel conceptual designs and accept errors, which are inevitable in creative trials. Moreover, they have to record, digest, accumulate, and utilize the experiences of creative trial-and-error. With this mindful accumulation strategy, they can produce successful exploration results of their own conceptual design to help them transform into developed counterparts. Past innovation history confirms this stylized process of development from the perspective of innovation that includes conceptual design.
    It should be reminded that the accumulation strategy relies on a includesthespecific set of components within the institutional framework, which consists of a tolerance for trial-and-error, a long-term and consistent decision time horizon, and a well-articulated archiving system. Developing countries often lack the above components in their institutional frameworks for innovation, since the adoption strategy itself does not require them, and even, they are harmful for successful and efficient implementation of that strategy. Once the societal framework focusing on adoption of conceptual design is instituted, it is difficult to change, since the framework will become a set of widely adopted routines That is why most developing countries fail to advance to developed country status. Thus, developing countries need to change their societal institutions supporting accumulation of creative trial-and-error in order to become innovative. It requires a social consensus on the need of routine change and on the strategies for change.
  • Baeyong Lee - Office to the President, The Academy of Korean Studies

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    President, The Academy of Korean Studies
    Chairperson, National Council of Unification Education
    Member, Cultural Heritage Administration’s World Heritage Committee

    The 13th President, Ewha Womans University
    Chairperson, Presidential Council on Nation Branding
    The 15th Chairperson, Korean Council for University Education
    Title: Modern Value of Korean Record Heritage >
    Recording heritage is important, but what is more important is inheriting and preserving the records of heritage, because they are the records of history as well. That is why the record heritage is called 'the ancient future'.
    Korean record heritage is the 'protoplasm' of Korean culture that demonstrates Koreans' traditional ways of living and creating culture, and their intellectual activities and competences. Its viewers are impressed by the fact that they are facing the evidences showing the recorders' sincere commitment, consideration, and innovative pioneership to boost the cultural pride of the nation and its communities and improve the quality of people's lives.
    This paper aims to examine the historical environment and experiences in which Korean record heritage has been accumulated, and to determine why the record heritage in its analogue form still matters in this IT era by analyzing the zeitgeist of the past it reflects and the modern value it holds at the same time. Furthermore, this paper will explore how to illuminate the value of inherited record heritage as a compass that indicates the ways to the spirit of the times and the future.
  • L002 Plenary Session 2 [14:15-14:55]

    Anne Gilliland-Swetland - Professor, University of California, Los Angeles

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    Dr. Anne J. Gilliland is Professor and Director of the Archival Studies specialization in the Department of Information Studies at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). She is also the director of the Archival Education and Research Initiative (AERI). She is a Fellow of the Society of American Archivists and an Honorary Research Fellow of the Centre for Global Research, RMIT University in Melbourne and has served as a NORSLIS (Nordic Research School in Library and Information Science) Professor and as an Honorary Professorial Research Fellow, Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow. She has taught courses as a visiting faculty member at Renmin University of China in Beijing and the University of Zadar, Croatia. Her recent work has been addressing recordkeeping and archival systems and practices in support of human rights, recovery and daily life in post-conflict and diasporic settings; the role of community memory in promoting reconciliation in the wake of ethnic conflict; the politics and nature of metadata; digital recordkeeping and archival informatics; and research methods and design in archival studies.
    Title: Rising to the Challenges of the
    Twenty-first Century and a Digital World >
    For decades archives and archivists have been focused on the challenges to the field, its concepts and its practices that have come with increasingly ubiquitous societal use of information and communications technology. While archivists have at the same time also engaged in all sorts of important and innovative digital documentation, description, access and outreach initiatives, the digital world is still often conceived of as problematic, perhaps even life-threatening for the archival field. It is time to turn this thinking around and to invest in the distinctive contributions that archives and the records that they hold could make, individually and collectively, to the world as it is today and as we would like it to be in the future. This presentation will argue for the judicious application and use by archives of a broad range of digital technologies and techniques to support integrated, more pluralistically and more inclusively and equitably conceived archival functions and also to contribute to resolving global and local grand challenges and wicked problems. Specifically it will discuss in this regard the potential of automatic translation, semantic and ontological mapping, digital certification, and adaptive technologies and techniques, as well as the development of digital "safekeeping places" and records search services for use by underrepresented, threatened and migrant communities and individuals around the globe.
  • Barbara Reed - Director, Recordkeeping Innovation Pty Ltd

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    Barbara Reed, Director of Recordkeeping Innovation Pty Ltd, is a consultant in the field of records, archives and information management with more than 25 years industry experience in Australia and the Asia Pacific region. She is an active participant in standards development at the Australian and international level, being Chair of the Standards Australia committee and a long time member of the ISO TC46/SC11. She was an academic in recordkeeping at Monash University and continues a research association with the Records Continuum Research Group and the Centre for Organisational and Social Informatics. She teaches recordkeeping to post-graduate students at the University of Canberra and conducts regular professional development courses in Australasia. She participates in research advisory committees for a number of projects, and has undertaken past projects for national and state archival institutions in Australia and New Zealand. Areas of special interest include digital recordkeeping strategies, recordkeeping metadata and standards development for whole of government initiatives. She is a founding member of The Recordkeeping Roundtable. She has published widely in archives, records and information management academic journals and industry publications. She is a Fellow of both the Australian Society of Archivists and the Records and Information Management Professionals Australasia.
    Title: Recordkeeping in the age of FANG
    (Facebook, Amazon/Apple, Netflix, Google) >
    Volume, velocity, variety and veracity – the four Vs of big data – and trends towards user/client compiled and managed archives, challenge archivists and archival thinking in the digital age. The nature of the digital brings valuable opportunities in forcing our professional practices to expand to deal with the digital deluge. Acknowledging a lengthy transition between paper and digital paradigms should free professional thinking to experiment, make mistakes and avoid positivist assertions of ‘the’ way to approach digital. Strict binary approaches – records management vs archives, organisational records vs individuals’ records, records vs information, theory vs practice – are being revealed as inadequate to assist our profession in the necessary transition in thinking and doing. This paper explores alternative paths to connect our archival aspirations to the complex digital environment, based on emerging understanding of recordkeeping informatics approaches for records and archives in personal, organisational, community, and social settings.
  • Yoonkyoung Kang - Director, Samsung Electronics Collective
    Intelligence Office, Creativity & Innovation Center

    Read more >
    Yoonkyoung Kang is the Director of the Collective Intelligence Office, Creativity and Innovation Center at Samsung Electronics where she is in charge of the planning, development, and operation of MOSAIC, the company-wide Collective Intelligence Platform that has 200,000 users worldwide. Since she joined Samsung Electronics, she has worked in the fields of R&D Innovation and Knowledge Management for 13 years. In 2015, Samsung Electronics received a presidential citation at the Korea Knowledge Management Award ceremony, and she won an official commendation from the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs for her significant and sustained contribution to promoting knowledge management across Samsung Electronics, setting a landmark example for other organizations to follow.
    Her multidisciplinary knowledge and experience span from information technology to social science. She holds a Master’s degree in Information Science from the Univ. of Michigan, specializing in Social Computing. She also worked as a researcher for the database and multimedia Lab of Korea Telecom for 7 years upon obtaining her M.S. degree in Computer Science from KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology).
    Title: MOSAIC : The Archives of Collective Intelligence >
    Samsung Electronics’ products, which are all around us in our daily lives, have started from small ideas. A huge amount of ideas have been shared, inspired, and cultivated to turn a mere possibility into a breakthrough product. MOSAIC is the place where it all begins.

      MOSAIC is Samsung Electronics’ company-wide platform that harnesses the power of the collective intelligence of its 300,000 employees worldwide. In MOSAIC, employees propose and share creative ideas to develop new business opportunities, and they also discuss various issues together to seek expertise from others in the company and find ultimate solutions to their problems. Collective Intelligence is extensively used across the board from product planning to R&D, design, and marketing.

      Not only that, advanced information technologies are applied to MOSAIC to allow the knowledge to be used effectively. It makes it easier for employees to find the right information and person and gain insights from the vast amount of information accumulated. MOSAIC is also planning its next steps to predict and automatically recommend the knowledge that the user needs in advance.

      In the digital age, a company’s core competency comes from making the best use of its knowledge. This presentation will introduce how Samsung Electronics uses MOSAIC to form and share knowledge, establish a more creative environment, and result in noteworthy successes.
  • Friday 9 September

    K004 Keynote Session 4 [09:00-09:40]

    Li Minghua - Director General, State Archives
    Administration and the Central Archives of China

    Read more >
    Director General of the State Archives Administration and the Central Archives of China (since 2015)
    Chairman of Asia/Pacific Regional Committee for UNESCO Memory of the World Program (MoW) (since 2014)
    Chairman of the Chinese National Committee for the Memory of the World Program

    Working Experience:
    Deputy Director General of the State Archives Administration and the Central Archives of China (2005- July.2014)
    Director of the Reservation Department of the Central Archives
    Deputy Director, the Archives of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China
    Title: China’s Digital Archival Resources Development >
    Digital archival resources are formed in two ways: filing electronic documents that have been created under office automation and digitizing archives that have been kept by traditional carriers. The State Archives Administration of the People’s Republic of China (SAAC) has attached great importance to the development of digital archival resources in the digital era and made it part of the five-year plan of national archival development and its annual work plan. The SAAC has put forward specific targets and tasks for digital archival resource development to guide archival departments at all levels in carrying out their work. China has formulated a series of management and technical standards to ensure the standardization during digital archival resources development. The SAAC has been helping archival departments at all levels in collecting, processing, storing and managing digital archival information by applying modern information technology, and providing services of public archival information retrieval and sharing. These standards include Temporary Methods for Management of Electronic Documents, Methods for Transferring and Receiving Electronic Files, Guidance for Digital Archives Construction, Standards on Electronic Documents Filing and Management, Digitization Technology Standards for Paper Archives, and Requirements on General Functions of Electronic Documents Management System. To accumulate digital archival resources, China has implemented the strategy of “digitization of archival inventory and filing of original electronic archives”. By digitizing traditional archives and filing electronic documents, China has laid a solid foundation for digital documents sharing. To enhance the security of digital archival resources, China has established remote backup systems and backup on different carriers.
  • Eric Ketelaar - Professor Emeritus, University of Amsterdam

    Read more >
    Eric Ketelaar is Professor Emeritus at the University of Amsterdam, where from 1997 to 2009 he was Professor of Archivistics in the Department of Mediastudies. As a honorary fellow of his former department he continues his research which is concerned mainly with the social and cultural contexts of records creation and use.
    Educated as a lawyer and legal historian, he received his LLM and LLD (cum laude) degrees from Leiden University. He was Secretary of the Archives Council, Director of the Dutch State School of Archivists, Deputy General State Archivist and State Archivist in the province of Groningen. From 1989-1997 he was General State Archivist (National Archivist) of The Netherlands.
    From 1992-2002 he held the chair of archivistics in the Department of History of the University of Leiden. Eric Ketelaar was visiting professor at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor), Gakushuin University (Tokyo), the University of Toronto and Monash University (Melbourne), where he continues to be involved as a Senior Research Fellow. From the foundation, in 2001, of Archival Science, he was one of the editors-in-chief. Since 2014 he is a member of the Editorial Board.
    Eric served the International Council on Archives during twenty years in various positions, before being appointed Honorary President of ICA in 2000. He has served the Royal Society of Dutch Archivists as Vice President, and President. He has been a member of the European Commission on Preservation and Access, president of the Records Management Convention of The Netherlands, and chairman of the DLM Forum Foundation.
    Title: Archiving Technologies >
    The Digital Age offers enormous opportunities and poses equally enormous challenges to archiving technologies. Archiving technologies encompass both technologies to archive and the archiving of technologies. These technologies are constructed by people and they facilitate people’s actions. Technology is both a product and a medium of human action. The archive is a dynamic process of creation and recreation by “archivers”: authors, clerks, registrars, antiquarians, keepers, managers, engineers, website builders, genealogists, family members and, indeed, archivists and recordkeeping professionals. Archivers use socially embedded technologies and are constrained by these technologies. This duality shapes the archive but also structures the archiving of technologies. Such archiving is indispensable in a knowledge-based economy, where the level of external and internal knowledge is an important factor determining the costs (and success) of a new technology. However, archiving as a practice of knowledge management in technology industry is not well established, notwithstanding efforts by archivists and historians to raise awareness of the importance of documenting and archiving technologies.